Cervical Spondylomyelopathy (Wobbler syndrome). Veterinary Clinics of North America – Small Animal Practice (2010)
da Costa RC. Cervical Spondylomyelopathy (Wobbler syndrome). Veterinary Clinics of North America – Small Animal Practice. 40 (5), 881-913, 2010.
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Cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM) is a common disease of the cervical spine of large and giant breed dogs. CSM is characterized by dynamic and static compressions of the cervical spinal cord, nerve roots, or both, leading to variable degrees of neurologic deficits and neck pain. CSM is a controversial disease. There are few diseases in veterinary medicine that have been referred to by 14 different names. Wobbler syndrome, caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy, cervical spondylopathy, cervical spondylopathy disc associated compression, cervical vertebral instability, cervical malformation/malarticulation syndrome, cervical spondylolisthesis, cervical stenotic myelopathy, disc-associated wobbler syndrome, cervical spinal stenosis, cervical subluxation, cervical vertebral instability-malformation syndrome, and cervical spondylotic myelopathy are all terms that have been used to describe the disease.