Long-term Clinical and Computed Tomography Follow-up Study in Great Danes with Signs of Cervical Spondylomyelopathy (2019)

Vansteenkiste DP, Martin-Vaquero P, Bonelli , da Costa LB, da Costa RC. Long-term Clinical and Computed Tomography Follow-up Study in Great Danes with Signs of Cervical Spondylomyelopathy. BMC Veterinary Research 15 (1), 1-8, 2019.

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Background: Cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM) is a common cause of cervical spinal cord dysfunction in giant and large breed dogs. CSM causes considerable gait abnormalities, leading to severe disability and pain. Two different forms
of CSM have been documented, osseous-associated (OA-CSM), mainly seen in Great Danes and other giant breeds, and disc-associated (DA-CSM), where Dobermans and other large dogs are commonly affected. In OA-CSM, spinal cord and nerve root compression is caused by vertebral canal stenosis secondary to osseous proliferation of the vertebral arch, articular processes, and/or pedicles. Diagnosis of OA-CSM involves imaging evaluation of the cervical vertebral column. Basic radiography, myelography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have all been described to aid in the diagnosis of OA-CSM, with each modality providing different information about the different anatomical structures. It is generally accepted that MRI is the imaging modality of choice for dogs with suspected OA-CSM. The MRI-based morphometry of the cervical vertebral column of clinically normal and OA-CSM affected Great Danes has been reported. Vertebral canal stenosis secondary to osteoarthritic proliferation of the articular process or laminar/pedicular malformation and severe foraminal stenosis involving the cervical vertebral canal are characteristic of OA-CSM. Computed tomography has been compared to MRI and has shown its utility especially in OA-CSM. Computed tomography was shown to be more consistent for evaluating cervical articular process joints.

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